Vehicle emissions compliance for light-duty vehicles in India

Compliance and enforcement programs aim to ensure that, even after a period of use, vehicle emissions of criteria pollutants (primarily particulates, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide) do not exceed the original certification standards. Compliance tests protect the certification process, and ensure environmental performance over an established durability period. Most countries with mature vehicle markets have established compliance programs. Emerging markets, such as India, have generally have modelled their programs on European Union regulations. But the EU is unusual in that while standards and certain norms are set by the EU as a whole, each member state develops its own compliance and enforcement mechanisms. Additionally, the EU in-use vehicle compliance programs are less robust that the United States’, which are generally considered the most effective in the world. This paper analyzes compliance processes in India, assessing their strengths and shortcomings. It also looks at relevant regulations in the United States to put India’s regulations in context and provide recommendations.