In 2014, the Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) to resolve India’s sanitation bottlenecks and accelerate the development of sanitation markets. Targeting the elimination of open defecation through universal toilet access, over 5.5 million urban toilets have been built till date.

The aim of this white paper is to explore the nuances of the prevalence of on-site sanitation systems in large and dense villages of India.