In 2014, the Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) to resolve India’s sanitation bottlenecks and accelerate the development of sanitation markets. Targeting the elimination of open defecation through universal toilet access, over 5.5 million urban toilets have been built till date.

The aim of this white paper is to explore the nuances of the prevalence of on-site sanitation systems in large and dense villages of India.

The discourses on rural and urban spaces in India in the context of physical infrastructure have divulged their inherent characteristic differences.

The Centre for Policy Research (CPR) jointly with the Freshwater Action Network, South Asia (FANSA) have collaborated to bring out this research report. It highlights the need for policy focus on smaller city sanitation and discusses why faecal waste management requires immediate attention in the region.

This report explores the opportunities for investment in sanitation by the private sector, and it profiles 16 initiatives currently being undertaken for the provision of sanitation services and infrastructure, either through corporate social responsibility (CSR) funding, public private partnership (PPP), or independent corporate funding.

These are historic times in the field of sanitation in India.