How does the state govern cities where much of the economy is informal, on the margins of state regulatory institutions?

In 2014, the Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) to resolve India’s sanitation bottlenecks and accelerate the development of sanitation markets. Targeting the elimination of open defecation through universal toilet access, over 5.5 million urban toilets have been built till date.

The aim of this white paper is to explore the nuances of the prevalence of on-site sanitation systems in large and dense villages of India.

This study looks at the development of legal and regulatory framework governing drinking water and sanitation services in South Africa.

This study looks at the development of legal and regulatory framework governing drinking water and sanitation services in South Africa, England and United States.

A large percentage of urban Indians rely on on-site sanitation systems for managing their Faecal waste, in absence of public sewers. With an increase in the number of toilets due to initiatives such as the Swachh Bharat Mission, the issue of Faecal Sludge Management (‘FSM’) becomes increasingly important.

A large percentage of urban Indians rely on on-site sanitation systems for managing their Faecal waste, in absence of public sewers. With an increase in the number of toilets due to initiatives such as the Swachh Bharat Mission, the issue of Faecal Sludge Management (‘FSM’) becomes increasingly important.

A large percentage of urban Indians rely on on-site sanitation systems for managing their Faecal waste, in absence of public sewers. With an increase in the number of toilets due to initiatives such as the Swachh Bharat Mission, the issue of Faecal Sludge Management (‘FSM’) becomes increasingly important.

A large percentage of urban Indians rely on on-site sanitation systems for managing their Faecal waste, in absence of public sewers. With an increase in the number of toilets due to initiatives such as the Swachh Bharat Mission, the issue of Faecal Sludge Management (‘FSM’) becomes increasingly important.

Sanitation access in schools is important to keep children, especially girl children in school. It is also important to spread the culture of safe sanitation more widely, especially among the young.