Reviews the environmental impacts of palm oil production for biofuel in Indonesia, including greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and air and water pollution. Palm oil is the most widely used vegetable oil in the world and is a major feedstock for biodiesel and renewable diesel globally.

Describes case studies of energy cropping in Europe in the context of advanced biofuel and bioproducts sustainability. European biofuel policy has been dominated by discussions about the indirect effects of biofuel consumption, and in particular indirect land use change and impacts on food prices and security.