This report explores some of the main challenges associated with the likelihood that South Africa’s coal production might decline significantly, potentially over the next five to ten years. The authors highlight some of the key issues that need to be thought through and discussed as part of ensuring a “just transition” to this future.

This working paper analyses the political factors that shape subsidies to coal extraction in Colombia, and explores why and how those subsidies have been promoted. Colombia is one of the world’s top five exporters of thermal coal, and the coal mining sector is a core pillar of the national government’s economic development policy.