This paper assesses the existing knowledge base to better understand the economic, social and political consequences of mine closures at the national and subnational scales. Over the next decade, coal mines will likely close across the world, as many countries shift their energy systems away from fossil fuels and towards cleaner energy.

This report explores some of the main challenges associated with the likelihood that South Africa’s coal production might decline significantly, potentially over the next five to ten years. The authors highlight some of the key issues that need to be thought through and discussed as part of ensuring a “just transition” to this future.

This paper explores the political economy of coal mining in Indonesia, and looks at how policy changes over the last few years might affect coal production and export.

This working paper analyses the political factors that shape subsidies to coal extraction in Colombia, and explores why and how those subsidies have been promoted. Colombia is one of the world’s top five exporters of thermal coal, and the coal mining sector is a core pillar of the national government’s economic development policy.

This paper analyses flows of climate finance to Cape Verde, the Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, the Maldives, Mauritius, São Tomé and Príncipe, and the Seychelles. This report highlights important trends in the allocation of climate finance across the region.

The Caribbean region’s Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face considerable threats from climate change, and considerable costs to cope with and adapt to climate impacts that exceed their financial capacity.

This paper presents an analysis of climate finance flows to Pacific Island states in 2010–2014, collectively and by country, as well as more recent data on flows from multilateral climate funds.

Globally, 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity and an estimated 2.7 billion rely on traditional biomass – wood, charcoal, animal waste and agricultural residues – for cooking and space heating. Roughly one third of this population lives in rural India.

Private-sector finance has been widely embraced as an important part of efforts to scale up resources for developing countries to respond to climate change. Yet there has been very little analysis of what private finance means for developing countries, and whether it will really deliver what is intended.

This report is the result of a year-long research project driven by a quest for better understanding on how the emerging BASIC powers – Brazil, South Africa, India and China – approach international climate negotiations as a group.