Plant functional types bridge the gap between plant physiology and ecosystem processes. In the present article, we review the plant functional traits and their response to grazing, and discuss how this affects the nutrient dynamics of the system under the pressure of herbivory. The results also strengthen the management of ecosystems being grazed by herbivores.

Invasion by exotic species is among the most important global-scale problems experienced by natural ecosystems. Studies document that floristic changes that emerge after habitat fragmentation may be due to invasion by exotic weeds.