In this study, the authors developed a simulation model to evaluate the life-cycle cost (LCC) and life-cycle CO2 (LCCO2) in a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system by taking into account the construction/renewal and maintenance patterns of MSW treatment facilities from mid or long term perspective.

China's water and energy price reform began in the late 1978 after running large-scale interventions in pricing system for long time then has a gradually deep influence on consumer's behaviors. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine Chinese consumer reactions as a response to the introductions of pricing reform for water and energy resource.