Despite pronounced reductions in child mortality in industrialised countries, variations exist within and between countries. Many child deaths are preventable, and much could be done to further reduce mortality. For the family, their community, and professionals caring for them, every child's death is a tragedy. Systematic review of all child deaths is grounded in respect for the rights of children and their families, and aimed towards the prevention of future child deaths.

Many factors affect child and adolescent mortality in high-income countries. These factors can be conceptualised within four domains—intrinsic (biological and psychological) factors, the physical environment, the social environment, and service delivery. The most prominent factors are socioeconomic gradients, although the