Focusing on micro and small enterprises (MSEs) is critical to climate change adaptation because these businesses provide livelihoods for the world's poor, who are particularly vulnerable to climate change, according to a report by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Resources Institute (WRI).

This paper quantifies how African farmers have adapted their crop and irrigation decisions to their farm's current agro-ecological zone. The results indicate that farmers carefully consider the climate and other conditions of their farm when making these choices. These results are then used to forecast how farmers might change their irrigation and crop choice decisions if climate changes. The model predicts African farmers would adopt irrigation more often under a very hot and dry climate scenario but less often with a mild and wet scenario.