Clouds substantially affect Earth’s energy budget by reflecting solar radiation back to space and by restricting emission of thermal radiation to space. They are perhaps the largest uncertainty in our understanding of climate change, owing to disagreement among climate models and observational datasets over what cloud changes have occurred during recent decades and will occur in response to global warming.

Atmospheric aerosols are of significant environmental importance, due to their effects on air quality, as well as their ability to alter the planet’s radiative balance. Recent studies characterizing the effects of climate change on air quality and the broader distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere show significant, but inconsistent results, including the sign of the effect.

The primary drivers of the Northern Hemisphere expansion of the tropical climate zone over the past several decades are shown to be the recent increases in black carbon aerosols and tropospheric ozone rather than in greenhouse gases, which contribute to a lesser extent.

There has been a strong disagreement between model predictions of troposphere warming and observations of temperature trends from radiosondes and satellites. However, when tropospheric temperature reconstructions are generated from thermal-wind measurements and the thermal-wind equation for 1970