Models and physical reasoning predict that extreme precipitation will increase in a warmer climate due to increased atmospheric humidity. Observational tests using regression analysis have reported a puzzling variety of apparent scaling rates including strong rates in midlatitude locations but weak or negative rates in the tropics. Here we analyse daily extreme precipitation events in several Australian cities to show that temporary local cooling associated with extreme events and associated synoptic conditions reduces these apparent scaling rates, especially in warmer climatic conditions.

The primary drivers of the Northern Hemisphere expansion of the tropical climate zone over the past several decades are shown to be the recent increases in black carbon aerosols and tropospheric ozone rather than in greenhouse gases, which contribute to a lesser extent.

Despite the uncertainty in future climate-change impacts, it is often assumed that humans would be able to adapt to any possible warming. Here we argue that heat stress imposes a robust upper limit to such adaptation. Peak heat stress, quantified by the wet-bulb temperature TW, is surprisingly similar across diverse climates today. TW never exceeds 31?

How strong a part does water vapor play in global warming?

There has been a strong disagreement between model predictions of troposphere warming and observations of temperature trends from radiosondes and satellites. However, when tropospheric temperature reconstructions are generated from thermal-wind measurements and the thermal-wind equation for 1970