Pulp and paper mill requires a huge quantity of water and accordingly a substantial amount of spent liquor is generated. In this study purification of lignosulphonates (LS) present in spent sulphite liquor, a pulp and paper mill effluent was studied using continuous diafiltration.

Due to the surface mining at Makrana, the flora, hydrological relations and soil biological systems are drastically disturbed. In Makrana the main cause of environmental pollution is marble mining dust particulates and stone crusher dust. Analysis of the samples showed that the soil of Makrana is saline sodic because of high pH value and excess sodium presence. The agricultural field near these marble mines and stone crushers areas show poor growth and yield of crops and vegetable crops was noticed.