Phytolith occluded carbon (PhytOC) which is stable in the soil environment is considered to be an important
fraction of soil organic carbon and substantially contributes to the terrestrial carbon sequestration for long periods (millennia). Phytoliths are silica bodies produced by plants as a result of biomineralization process. During this process, occlusion of carbon also takes place within the phytoliths. Some of the major agricultural crops like barley, maize, rice, sorghum, sugarcane and wheat are known to be prolific producers of phytolith and PhytOC. In India, an estimate

Chilli-based repellents have shown promise as deterrents against crop-raiding elephants in Africa. The authors experimented with ropes coated with chilli-based repellent as a cheap alternative to existing elephant crop raid deterrent methods in India.