Southeast Asia witnesses high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Large-scale deforestation for agriculture
(notably oil palm) is driven by international market demand. Small-scale deforestation is partly driven by: market

This paper reviews main approaches to estimate the costs of REDD, with a focus on the opportunity costs. These can be classified into local-empirical, global-empirical and global simulation models. In local-empirical models, per-area opportunity cost estimates are derived from detailed studies (surveys) and carbon density estimates