Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) — a subset of nature-based approaches to help people adapt to climate change — is an increasingly popular strategy. Evidence from 13 initiatives in 12 countries shows that EbA can provide important, wide-reaching and long-term benefits relating to adaptation, the environment and social issues.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) concluded that climate change will have significant impacts on many aspects of biological diversity; on ecosystems, species, genetic diversity within species, and on ecological interactions.