India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) through promotion of institutional births. JSY is the largest CCT in the world. In the nine states with relatively lower socioeconomic levels, JSY provides a cash incentive to all women on birthing in health institution. The cash incentive is intended to reduce financial barriers to accessing institutional care for delivery.

Occurrence of antibiotics was investigated in water associated with two hospitals in Ujjain district, India. Samples of hospital associated water were subjected to solid phase extraction combined with high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to estimate antibiotics in incoming safe water, hospital wastewater and groundwater.