In this paper, zero-emission heavy-duty vehicles refers to vehicles with maximum weight ratings greater than 3.5 tonnes (t) that are equipped with powertrain technologies that produce no tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. ZE-HDVs are battery-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles.

There is growing interest, especially in Latin America, in implementing and expanding voluntary green freight programs that include eco-driving as a key component.