The leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) ranges widely throughout the Indian Ocean, although nesting appears restricted to a few scattered areas. In the northeast Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia, leatherbacks nest on the Indian mainland (small numbers), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, western coast of Thailand (small numbers), Sumatra, and Java. The current situation in Myanmar with regards to leatherback reproduction is unclear.

Accidental entanglement of turtles in abandoned fshing nets has been, and will likely continue to be, a major threat to sea turtles. Te impact of abandoned or lost nets, also known as ghost nets, can occur far from their point of origin as nets may drif far distances with ocean currents. Turtles that swim through ghost nets may get their body or fippers snagged in the net, potentially leading to lost circulation and injury to fippers, drowning, or prevention from feeding to the point of starvation.

One of the fastest growing divisions of the tourism industry, ecotourism is touted for demonstrating both conservation and economic benefits. The main objectives of ecotourism are ostensibly to provide financial aid for conservation of natural areas and ensuring employment and economic profits for those living in the area. This is expected, in turn, to result in the involvement of local communities in conservation and management activities. Consequently, local involvement could ensure the sustainability and longevity of such initiatives.

The Olive Ridley Project was initiated in response to large numbers of olive ridleys turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) found entangled in fishing nets in the Maldives. This species of sea turtle is rarely observed in the Maldives; however, since 2011 marine biologists, dive masters and boat captains have recorded 47 olive ridleys entangled in fishing nets. The recorded entanglements have occurred through chance encounters suggesting the data only reflects a small proportion of the actual number of ghost net entrapments of olive ridleys in this region.

Solitary nesting of olive ridleys at Gahirmatha rookery occurred almost every month during the nesting season. However, solitary nesting turtles were more frequent between February and April, suggesting this is the main nesting season for the species (Dash and Kar, 1990). As solitary nesting activity of olive ridley turtles on the Ganjam coast was not well documented previously, our aim was to do so and determine if nesting beaches in addition to Rushikulya were present along the Ganjam coast.

Sea turtles are vulnerable to aspects of climate change because they have life history, physiological attributes and behaviour that make them extremely
sensitive to environmental changes.

Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu has a coastline of 161 km.The Government of India through its Ministry of Environment and Forests and the Wetland and Wildlife Management Division funds various olive ridley conservation projects every year along this coast. A description of various activities carried out along the Nagapattinam coast is given.

Five of the world

The most audible opponents of the Dhamra Port project have been conservation organisations such as Greenpeace, turtle biologists and environmentalists from across the country and beyond.

In the past 15 years, various groups of researchers, state Forest Department officials and nongovernment organisations have been involved in the conservation and monitoring of turtle populations in Maharashtra. Sindhudurg, the southern-most district of Maharashtra. This district has a rich coastal environment and has a site that has been identified for the creation of a marine park and sanctuary.