Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity.

One of the main challenges for conservation today is monitoring and understanding changes in biodiversity. Genetic diversity provides the foundation for biodiversity and is necessary for long-term survival, adaptation, and resilience not only for individuals, but also for populations, species, and entire ecosystems.

Knowledge gathered over the past four years in the IUCN Close the Plastic Tap programme is the basis of this publication.

Aquaculture production has very significantly increased in tonnage and value over the last decades. It is seen as a potential solution to replace the declining wild fishery stocks. This publication is a first attempt to examine aquaculture systems within the recent framework of the IUCN Global Standard for Nature-based Solutions (NbS).

Recent global initiatives in ecosystem restoration offer an unprecedented opportunity to improve biodiversity conservation and human health and well-being. Ecosystems form a core component of biodiversity.

Women play a key role in nature conservation, yet they often lack the inputs, technologies, training and extension services, and various enablers and linkages that can enhance the effectiveness of their efforts. Evidence indicates that gender-inclusive and gender-sensitive conservation practices have far-reaching multiplier impacts.

Western Africa is rich in freshwater biodiversity and regional endemicity, supporting the entire global populations of many threatened freshwater species including fishes, molluscs, dragonflies, crabs, shrimps and aquatic plants.

Along with defining the measures needed to achieve ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), solid governance components are imperative to make it effective. Such governance must be flexible, participatory, multidimensional and include ecosystem-based approaches (maintain ecosystem structure and function to guarantee human well-being).

Alongside their contribution to biodiversity conservation, protected and conserved areas are increasingly recognised as important sources of a wide range of benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans gain from intact, natural ecosystems.

Conflict and conservation focuses on armed conflict and nature. The theme is highly timely as armed conflicts cause great economic and social harm, as well as environmental damage around the world. Conflicts have stretched societies to their limits in terms of financial and human resources.

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