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Agricultural  application  of  Municipal  Solid  Waste  (MSW),  as  nutrient  source  for plants and as soil conditioner, is the most cost­effective option of MSW management because  of  its  advantages  over  traditional  means  such  as  landfilling  or  incineration. However, agricultural application of MSW can lead to a potential environmental threat due  to  the  presence  of  pathogens  and  toxic  pollutants.  Composting  is  an  attractive
alternative of MSW recycling. Application of MSW compost (MSWC) in agricultural soils can directly alter soil physicochemical properties as well as promote plant growth. The soil microbial biomass, considered as the living part of soil organic matter, is very closely  related  to  the  soil  organic  matter  content  in  many  arable  agricultural  soils. Numerous studies, with different MSWC amendment doses on different soil types and
under different water regimes revealed no detrimental effect on soil microbial biomass.
In this review, we show the state of art about the effects of MSWC amendment on soil
microbial biomass.