Enabling environment and policy principles for replicable technology transfer: lessons from wind energy in India

This article examines cross-border technology transfer between Indian and Danish/German firms in the wind energy industry between 1990 and 2005. The analysis shows the increasing technology gaps between the two sides during this time period, the fragmented and nonperformance-oriented market mechanism, the small market size, the policy inconsistency, the institutional inadequacy caused by the power sector restructuring process, the persistent infrastructure deficiency, and the lack of proper oversights, which all contributed to the slowdown of technology transfer after the initial strong transfer trends. The weak demand-pull and supply push domestic forces in India prevented replicable technology transfer from happening, as technology providers and collaborators looked elsewhere for more reliable market investment opportunities and suppliers.