Overview of India’s vehicle emissions control program: past successes and future prospects

A comprehensive survey, setting India’s policy options in the context of international experience and assessing technology costs versus health and economic benefits under several scenarios. Rising transportation activity—the ever-increasing demand to move more people and goods further and faster—is both a cause and an effect of India’s rapid economic growth. As necessary as the increase in mobility may be to boost Indians’ standard of living, there are harmful consequences associated with it. These include an increased reliance on imported fossil fuels, which are responsible for climate change, and rising emissions of pollutants that cause disease or, all too often, premature death. India needs policies to manage the rise in transportation activity so as to maximize the benefits of increased mobility while minimizing if not eliminating those harmful consequences.