Pollution characterization and quantification in the agriculture sectors

Typical agriculture sectors like animal production and processing, aquaculture and its processing, and fruit and vegetable processing, can be water-intensive and generate complex and sometimes severe pollution. Controlling pollution hinges on knowing its quantity (wastewater and solid waste volume) and characteristics (major pollutants and their concentration range, nature of wastes, etc.), which are mostly unavailable in commonly used guidelines. This study fills the gaps and provides unit water use, unit discharge of wastes (both liquid and solid), and their concentration range through substantial literature survey and research. Their applications are demonstrated and discussed with examples.