Scenario analysis for HFC emissions in India: mitigation potential and costs

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are often used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in various sectors, including refrigeration, air-conditioning, aerosols, fire extinguishers, and foam blowing. In addition, HFC-23 is generated as a by-product of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) production for feedstock use in industry and for emissive use. HFCs are the fastest-growing group of greenhouse gases in much of the world, increasing at a rate of 10–15 percent per year. At present, India is following the Hydro chlorofluorocarbon Phaseout Management Plan (HPMP) as part of its international commitment under the Montreal Protocol to mitigate consumption of ODSs. This transition is almost complete in non-Article 5 parties (primarily developed countries). However, the phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) has largely resulted in a transition towards hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are potent greenhouse gases. In India, the majority of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems produced and marketed currently use HCFC-22. The impending transition away from HCFCs would in all probability lead to the higher consumption and emission of HFCs in India.