This case study analyzes the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for mitigating the impact of drought on rural livelihoods in Uttar Pradesh. It explores both insurance mechanisms for spreading drought risk and, as an alternative, the development of groundwater irrigation for eliminating such risk.

In this case study, the costs and benefits under potential climate change of different flood risk reduction approaches in northern India were analyzed and compared. In addition, the utility, applicability and limitations of cost-benefit analysis for supporting disaster risk reduction decision-making under a changing climate were investigated.