This paper explores how the Cartagena Protocol to the convention on Biological Diversity, as well as other important drivers, have affected the regulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops in developing countries. It examines the impact of biosafety regulation on research and development of GE crops and on product approvals.

Three out of four poor people in the developing world live in rural areas, and most of them depend—directly or indirectly—on agriculture for their livelihoods. Providing economic services, such as agricultural extension, is essential for using agriculture for development.