Much has changed since the European Commission published in 2011 “The roadmap for moving to a competitive, low carbon economy in 2050.” The Paris Agreement created a new global framework to address climate change, and many of the assumptions—including technological and scientific ones— on which the 2050 roadmap was built have changed.

Combating climate change is perhaps the most formidable public policy challenge of the times. Unmitigated climate change will be irreversible. It will place significant costs on future generations, and expose them to unexplored risks. To mitigate climate change, global coordination is indispensable.