This paper is based on analytical work previously conducted by NewClimate Institute, Öko-Institut, Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co., Ltd., and IGES.

This report provides an update on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation Plus (REDD+) forest reference (emission) levels (FREL/FRLs) and REDD+ results submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and relevant developments under the Green Climate Fund concerning REDD+ results-based payments.

As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation continue largely unabated, it is becoming critical to strengthen nature-based solutions in national climate strategies, including Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Long-Term Low-Emission Development Strategies (LT-LEDS) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

While South Africa is recognised as a strong voice in climate change negotiations, it is certainly not the most powerful country. As such, South Africa has had a difficult balancing act to play in protecting its interests.

Climate change affects all aspects of human life and life on the planet. Because nearly all human activities contribute to it, climate change is interconnected with many other global challenges and the responses to them.

This policy brief was prepared following the momentous UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP25) outcome in which Parties adopted a two-year workplan for the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples’ Platform (LCIPP).

The Government of Rwanda has announced an ambitious climate action agenda that features a 38% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to business as usual by 2030, equivalent to an estimated mitigation of up to 4.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e).

Namibia’s development is guided by its 5-year periods National Development Plans within its long-term National Policy Framework, Vision 2030, and recently by the Harambee Prosperity Plan (HPP).

This report identifies actions, within and taken by developing countries, in response to climate hazards that lead to enhancement of adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience, and a reduction in vulnerability.

The greenhouse gases (GHG) emission inventory for the country is prepared according to the requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines.

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