The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is important through its role as the “cornerstone” of EU climate change policy as well as a “role model” and “pioneer” for carbon markets.

There is an inescapable nexus between trade and climate change. Trade activities affect the climate. Climate measures affect trade. Economically, environmentally, and legally under international law, the two are intertwined.

Road transport accounts for about one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions and these are growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries.

This paper develops the broad contours of an ambitious approach to fossil fuel subsidy reform using the multilateral trade system. It does not remain within the limits of existing World Trade Organization (WTO) law, or the overall market-opening goals of the WTO.

The G20 has committed to phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies. Such measures, intended to favour energy security or protect the poor from high fuel costs, encourage the extraction and wasteful consumption of fuels, undermine the competitiveness of renewable energy, and further aggravate climate change.

The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) has passed its 10th anniversary. As any other undertaking, it requires, periodically, an assessment regarding its well-functioning, and the delivery of its objectives. Article 10(5) of the EU ETS Directive provides for such a yearly assessment.

The increasingly interconnected nature of the global economy means that the impacts of climate change mitigation measures, or response measures, are not confined within the borders of countries implementing them. Such impacts will become of even more and growing importance under the decentralised and increasingly ambitious new climate regime.

This paper identifies some of the key intersections between trade policy and water management, in areas such as agriculture, hydropower generation, water services and wastewater management.

China’s introduction of a national ETS, scheduled for 2017, is an important development in the expanding carbon market landscape. As countries move towards implementation of the recently-adopted Paris Agreement, this sends a powerful signal about China’s mitigation commitment and support for carbon markets.

This paper addresses questions about how the problems related to black-carbon are being addressed or could be addressed within shipping sector. It examines available technologies and ongoing regulatory efforts, as well as regulatory gaps. Following this, it proposes an Agreement on Black Carbon (ABC) as a viable means for bridging such gaps.

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