The increasingly interconnected nature of the global economy means that the impacts of climate change mitigation measures, or response measures, are not confined within the borders of countries implementing them. Such impacts will become of even more and growing importance under the decentralised and increasingly ambitious new climate regime.

This paper identifies some of the key intersections between trade policy and water management, in areas such as agriculture, hydropower generation, water services and wastewater management.

China’s introduction of a national ETS, scheduled for 2017, is an important development in the expanding carbon market landscape. As countries move towards implementation of the recently-adopted Paris Agreement, this sends a powerful signal about China’s mitigation commitment and support for carbon markets.

This paper addresses questions about how the problems related to black-carbon are being addressed or could be addressed within shipping sector. It examines available technologies and ongoing regulatory efforts, as well as regulatory gaps. Following this, it proposes an Agreement on Black Carbon (ABC) as a viable means for bridging such gaps.

Under the 2014 US Farm Bill, US cotton producers will receive significant subsidies which will have trade-distorting effects irrespective of future cotton prices.

The middle-income trap is a situation in which middle-income countries face a slowdown of growth.

Estimates show that fossil fuel subsidies average USD 400–600 billion annually worldwide while renewable energy (RE) subsidies amounted to USD 66 billion in 2010 and are predicted to rise to USD 250 billion annually by 2035.

The paper raises several questions that need to be faced while further developing subsidy rules in the World Trade Organization. Its primary focus is on whether the shift in the distribution of agricultural subsidies has changed the relevance of the AoA.

As shale gas exploration and extraction ramps up in many parts of the world, its contribution to global climate change and effect on international trade are becoming increasingly complicated and indeterminate. Undoubtedly, shale gas is transforming energy prices, industrial competitiveness, and geopolitics in a number of countries.

Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation are rapidly increasing. The EU and Norway, Iceland and Switzerland argue there is no other way to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from aviation but through the inclusion of aviation in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS).