Many rural communities in the global South – including some 370 million indigenous peoples – are directly dependent on biodiversity and related traditional knowledge for their livelihoods, food security, healthcare and well-being.

The adoption of Nagoya Protocol was a landmark event in the history of Convention on Biological Diversity. This article examines the promises and potentials of the Protocol for indigenous peoples and local communities in ight of previous experiences in Access and Benefit Sharing framework.