This handbook provides practical guidance for planning and implementing community-led ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in three vulnerable ecosystems: mountains, drylands and coastal areas. It is intended for project managers, practitioners and technical specialists.

Traditional farmers in the Central and Eastern Indian Himalayas have observed significant climatic changes in recent years, reducing agricultural productivity. They have responded by innovating to increase resilience and yields, using traditional knowledge, biodiversity and external knowledge.

Smallholder farmers in coastal Kenya are already significantly affected by climate change, particularly in semi-arid and dryland areas. They have developed a number of innovations to enhance resilience and productivity, eg. crop diversification using resilient local varieties, new planting techniques and wild tree domestication.

This report provides a record of recent climatic changes experienced by 21 indigenous mountain communities in 10 countries, and of the solutions they have developed based on traditional knowledge and experimentation.

Many rural communities in the global South – including some 370 million indigenous peoples – are directly dependent on biodiversity and related traditional knowledge for their livelihoods, food security, healthcare and well-being.

This paper prepared for the FAO Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food & Agriculture fourth Governing Body, Bali, 14-18 March 2011 reviews the treaty provisions on farmers Rights. Focuses on the implementation of farmers' rights particularly in Peru, India and China, and research findings on how to effectively implement farmers' rights and the erosion of genetic resources.

This report is an output of IIED