This report seeks to explore the current status of mainstreaming biodiversity into production sectors — in theory and in practice. It first explores a number of key concepts of biodiversity mainstreaming.

Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is devastating populations of iconic wildlife species such as rhinos and elephants, as well as lesser known ones such as pangolins, sturgeon and rosewood. As well as being a growing threat to conservation, IWT also has significant socioeconomic impacts.

From genes to micro-organisms to top predators and even whole ecosystems, depend on biodiversity for everything from clean air and water to medicines and secure food supplies. Yet human activities are destroying biodiversity around 1,000 times faster than natural ‘background’ rates.

Equity is gaining increasing attention in international conservation policy. Specifically, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Aichi Target 11 calls for “effectively and equitably managed … protected areas”.

Wildlife crime has come under increasing international scrutiny in recent years, with ever more money being spent on activities to combat it. However, little is known about what drives local people to become involved in wildlife crime, or about which interventions are likely to be most effective in tackling it.

Illegal wildlife trade (IWT), and particularly poaching of high value iconic species such as elephants, rhinos and tigers, is at the top of the international conservation agenda.

Although conservation interventions aim to protect biological and cultural diversity, they can affect communities in a number of ways. The vast body of international law, norms and standards protecting human rights offers little rights-based, practical guidance for conservation initiatives.

Wildlife crime is at the top of the international conservation agenda. Current strategies for addressing it focus on law enforcement, reducing consumer demand and engaging local communities in conservation. To date considerably more attention has been paid to the first two strategies than to the third.


Great ape ranges coincide with some of the poorest countries of the world – particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Great apes attract a great deal of conservation interest and funding, due to their close genetic relationship with humans and their status as global flagship species for conservation.