Although conservation interventions aim to protect biological and cultural diversity, they can affect communities in a number of ways. The vast body of international law, norms and standards protecting human rights offers little rights-based, practical guidance for conservation initiatives.

Many rural communities in the global South – including some 370 million indigenous peoples – are directly dependent on biodiversity and related traditional knowledge for their livelihoods, food security, healthcare and well-being.

The adoption of Nagoya Protocol was a landmark event in the history of Convention on Biological Diversity. This article examines the promises and potentials of the Protocol for indigenous peoples and local communities in ight of previous experiences in Access and Benefit Sharing framework.

This book illustrates the application of bio-cultural community protocols to a range of environmental legal frameworks. Part I focuses on the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and access and benefit-sharing.