Understanding the complex trade-offs between the economic, environmental and social impacts of subsidy reform is a challenge for any government considering phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies. Jennifer Ellis provides a detailed literature review, focusing on the six modelling studies in the last 20 years that have attempted to analyze global impacts for all fuels.

Investment in clean energy technologies in developing countries is a key component of achieving global commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. One mechanism to promote investment in energy efficiency technologies is through energy performance contracting (EPC) undertaken by Energy Service Companies (ESCOs).