The report makes numerous recommendations for further research and addresses a number of policy implications arising from the study. These address wildlife management policy at both state and national level and some consideration is also given to the implications for Convention on Biological Diversity.

Based on our studies in Norway and India, and the rapidly expanding scientific literature in this field, it is safe to say that human-wildlife conflicts are a universal state of affairs. This is a serious issue because it represents a long term threat to the persistence of wildlife as well as negatively affecting the lives of millions of people. Our conflict research is motivated by a desire to identify paths towards conflict reduction and mitigation, for the benefits of both people and wildlife.

A hundred years ago, humans almost exterminated all large mammals in Norway. Government protection has since ensured the overwhelming return of species, only to result in a newer problem: CONFLICT.