People with low income often experience higher exposures to air pollutants.We compared the exposure to particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10), Black Carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (PNCs; 0.02–1 μm) for typical commutes by car, bus and underground from 4 London areas with different levels of income deprivation (G1 to G4, from most to least deprived). The highest BC and PM concentrations were found in G1 while the highest PNC in G3. Lowest concentrations for all pollutants were observed in G2.

The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed “mobile” and “fixed-site” monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25–34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs.

This book of charts on the state of cities and towns produced by ORF Urban Policy Research Initiative covering five states - NCT Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Mizoram, presents a picture of the current state and developments in employment, education and public infrastructure provision, among others, and the disparities between states, within states and between different sections of the urban society.