There is considerable anxiety about the international impact of unilateral action on climate change. Environmentalists are concerned that it leads to ‘carbon leakage’, that is, the migration of high-emissions activities from relatively tight regulatory environments to more lenient jurisdictions.

The debate on climate finance in many climate-vulnerable developing countries tends to focus on finance provided by national governments and international donors. Yet the financial contribution of individual households in combatting the risks of climate change and extreme weather events is almost entirely ignored.