Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious, economically important viral disease. The structural protein VP1 plays significant roles during FMDV infection. Here, we identified that VP1 interacted with host ribosomal protein SA (RPSA).

A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus, first detected in January 2014 in poultry and wild birds in South Korea, has spread throughout Asia and Europe, and caused outbreaks in Canada and the United States by the end of the year. The spread of H5N8 and the novel reassortant viruses, H5N2 and H5N1 (H5Nx), in domestic poultry across multiple states in the U.S. pose a potential public health risk. To evaluate the potential of cross-species infection, we determined the pathogenesis and transmissibility of two Asian-origin H5Nx viruses in mammalian animal models.

Multiple host molecules are known to be involved in the cellular entry of filoviruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV); T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been identified as attachment and fusion receptors, respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the entry process have not been fully understood. We found that TIM-1 and NPC1 colocalized and interacted in the intracellular vesicles where EBOV glycoprotein (GP)-mediated membrane fusion occurred.

The researchers analyzed eight H10N8 viruses isolated from ducks and chickens in live poultry markets from 2009 to 2013 in China. These viruses showed distinct genetic diversity and formed five genotypes: the four duck isolates formed four different genotypes, whereas the four chicken viruses belong to a single genotype. The viruses bound to both human- and avian-type receptors, and four of the viruses caused 12.7% to 22.5% body weight loss in mice.

During the summer of 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a hitherto unknown coronavirus (CoV) was isolated from the sputum of a patient with acute pneumonia and renal failure. The isolate was provisionally called human coronavirus Erasmus Medical Center (EMC). Shortly thereafter, in September 2012, the same type of virus, named human coronavirus England, was recovered from a patient with severe respiratory illness who had been transferred from the Gulf region of the Middle East to London, United Kingdom (GenBank accession no. KC164505.2).