Flood Re is a governmental scheme which, among other things, guarantees insurance affordability and encourages self-protection. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are vital for local economies; their survival is one of the holy grails of economic recovery when flooding impacts communities.

A number of studies have compared national carbon abatement responsibility under different carbon accounting schemes. However, the difficulty of the shift among different national carbon accounting schemes has rarely been quantitatively evaluated in the literature.

This paper analyzes the roles of policies and preferences in national adoption of solar and wind energy technologies. Use cross-sectional and panel regressions for both the European Union and a broader international sample. Find that countries that price carbon emissions have gone on to adopt more solar and wind energy.

The social cost of carbon (SCC), a carbon price calculated from cost-benefit based integrated assessment models and used to inform some climate policies, will always be highly disputed, partly because a key model assumption, the centennial climate damage valuation function (CDF), will "always" be highly unknowable.