Despite significant efforts to increase latrine ownership, open defecation remains a challenge across rural India. Structural and economic barriers cannot sufficiently explain the stubborn persistence of open defecation among latrine owners; social norms and cultural schema, however, appear to be influential.

Question raised in Lok Sabha on Sanitation in Rural Areas, 13/12/2018. The status of rural sanitation coverage in the country at the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) [SBM(G)] was 38.70%.Since the launch of the SBM in October 2014, rural sanitation coverage has crossed 97%. State/UT-wise and year-wise number of Individual household latrines (IHHLs) constructed under SBM(G)since its launch with effect from 02.10.2014 are given at Annexure-1.State/UT-wise status of coverage of household toilets under SBM(G) as on 10.12.2018 is given at Annexure-2.

A total of 531 communities in the Upper West Region have been declared open defecation free (ODF) by the Regional Interagency Coordinating Council on Sanitation, RICCS, from 2012 to 2018, under the

Open defecation, for example, is dangerous for several reasons.

The study aims to measure the household and community costs and benefits of improved sanitation and hygiene implemented under the Swachh Bharat Mission, and to compare these in cost-benefit analysis. Costs include both financial and non-financial (in-kind) contributions of different parties.

Despite a substantial decline in poverty, an increase in access to water and sanitation and a large decline in open defecation, diarrhea and stunting rates in Pakistan show few signs of a decline.

According to the most recent joint monitoring program report for water and sanitation, sanitation coverage and usage has significantly progressed globally. The use of basic sanitation services has increased steadily between 2000 and 2015.

While rural Uttarakhand had been declared as Open Defecation Free (ODF) in June 2017, a report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) that was tabled in the Uttarakhand assembly stated that the declaration of the state as ODF was “incorrect”.

A year after the Gujarat government declared that the state has become open defecation-free (ODF), the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) in its latest report has dismissed the claim, saying “it does not appear to be correct”.

This report is the culmination of a study conducted by the Accountability Initiative (AI) on Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin in 2017 on the request of the Udaipur district administration. The study understands the outcomes, and the processes, which led to Open Defecation Free status in selected Gram Panchayats.