Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas and plays a key part in global atmospheric chemistry. Natural geological emissions (fossil methane vented naturally from marine and terrestrial seeps and mud volcanoes) are thought to contribute around 52 teragrams of methane per year to the global methane source, about 10 per cent of the total, but both bottom-up methods (measuring emissions)1 and top-down approaches (measuring atmospheric mole fractions and isotopes)2 for constraining these geological emissions have been associated with large uncertainties.

This report provides a summary of the Raising Risk Awareness project’s results and learning. In summarising both the project’s activities and stakeholders’ responses, this report may prove useful to scientists, development agencies and civil society-based organisations who wish to build on this foundational work in the future.

This Interim Report on Climate Change over India prepared by the Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR) in the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) Pune, is intended to provide a brief overview of (a) Updated assessment of observed climate change over India (b) Future climate projections over India (c) Development of the IITM Earth

This policy brief concludes that, from the climate science perspective, results show the 2016-17 drought is less severe than the 2010-11 drought in Lamu, while in Marsabit they are comparable. In general, the return time of the event over the regions analysed was low, meaning that this kind of drought is a relatively common event.

The average temperature in the United States has risen rapidly and drastically since 1980, and recent decades have been the warmest of the past 1,500 years, according to a sweeping federal climate change report awaiting approval by the Trump administration.