This study presents a synthesis that is an attempt to learn lessons from projects conducted by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

Recent studies suggest that Antarctica has the potential to contribute up to ~15 m of sea-level rise over the next few centuries. The evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is driven by a combination of climate forcing and non-climatic feedbacks.

Permafrost warming has the potential to amplify global climate change, because when frozen sediments thaw it unlocks soil organic carbon. Yet to date, no globally consistent assessment of permafrost temperature change has been compiled.

This publication presents a collection of examples of how the EU Framework Programme 7 and Horizon 2020 projects have re-aligned their objectives with those of the Paris Agreement and its 1.5°C/2°C goal. Each project has provided information on risks and impacts of global warming above 1.5°C/2°C and the costs and benefits of adaptation.

Climate change mitigation scenarios are important instruments for developing pathways towards a climate-friendly world. They form the basis for political and social negotiations regarding the climate protection measures to be adopted.