One goal, multiple pathways: A review of approaches for transferring on-board fuel consumption meter data to the European Commission

The new light-duty CO2 standards require the European Commission to monitor the real-world fuel and electric energy consumption of light-duty vehicles. In order to do this, the European Commission must develop a procedure to transfer the data recorded by soon to be mandatory on-board fuel and energy consumption monitoring devices (OBFCM). This paper analyzes the data transfer requirements, the transfer pathways, the potential use cases of the OBFCM data, and how the data can be complemented with vehicle parameters needed for the analysis.