In most places around the world, people are an integral, sometimes dominant, part of the environment. This has two implications. First, a key requirement for sustainability success lies in finding ways to meet the dual goals of conserving nature and providing for the well-being and quality of life of people.

Building on work presented at the IUCN World Parks Congress (WPC) held in Sydney, Australia, on 12–19 November 2014, this document explores experiences with aquatic protected areas (PAs), marine protected areas (MPAs) and protected areas in inland waters in the context of livelihoods and food security.