The growth of militant left radicalism, known as the Naxalite movement in official documents and civil society discussions, has acquired considerable prominence in the public policy discourse, media coverage and interaction with social scientists. The subject has also been deliberated upon in seminars across the country. The Government policy to deal with it has also polarised thinking on how it should be understood and characterised and what would be the most appropriate approach to neutralise its influence.

The paper locates the genesis of the Naxalite movement on the failure of governance to eliminate structural violence inflicted on the Dalits and Adivasis, changes policies which are extremely detrimental to their interests, makes implementing bureaucracy sensitive and accountable, and establish a system for delivery of justice and grievance redressal suited to their needs and within their easy rea

In the recent past, two major policy interventions have been made to resettle and rehabilitate persons displaced as a result of acquisition of land for development projects. While the government of Orissa brought out its policy in 2006, the Central Government notified a new policy in 2007.

Peasants across India are opposing development projects which displaced them from their land, habitat, livelihood and environment. They are questioning the paradign of development itself which is so heavily loaded against them. The law on land acquisition is central to the understanding of this hostility to development.