This policy brief analyzes the coal-to-liquid (CTL) fuel sector in South Africa, exploring the role of subsidies in driving the consumption of coal-derived fuels. It focuses on the various support measures that have and continue to benefit the CTL industry.

Despite the challenging policy environment, there are also opportunities for real progress in several areas between now and 2025. This report addresses seven concrete ways in which the Indonesian government can overcome the existing obstacles and make significant progress to grow renewable energy before 2025.

This report presents the case for a "subsidy swap"—reallocating some of the savings from fossil fuel subsidy reform to fund the clean energy transition. Fossil fuel to clean energy subsidy swaps are already taking place.