The report examines practical options for subsidy targeting in India by using a survey of over 900 households to analyze the distribution of residential electricity subsidies in the state of Jharkhand. It also examines various strategies to improve subsidy distribution and to better target benefits to poor households.

Major gaps in knowledge are limiting better targeting of energy access subsidies in India. The latest distributional analyses of energy consumption subsidies—that is, how benefits are shared across different income groups—are based on 2011 census data that are now significantly dated.

This report presents the case for a "subsidy swap"—reallocating some of the savings from fossil fuel subsidy reform to fund the clean energy transition. Fossil fuel to clean energy subsidy swaps are already taking place.

Often people assume that fossil fuel subsidies help the poor by making energy more affordable. In fact, most fossil fuel subsidies are not working well for energy access and poverty goals. The annual fossil fuel subsidy expenditure of USD 425 billion could be better invested by governments towards SDG outcomes.

Uttar Pradesh, India’s most populous state, is home to the country’s largest number of people without electricity access: as of late 2017, 14.6 million households—49 per cent of the state’s total—are yet to be electrified.

This study, undertaken by IISD-GSI and ICF International, untangles the energy-water nexus by analyzing how subsidized electricity has incentivized groundwater extraction in Haryana, India. The research identifies agricultural subsidies in general and then quantifies the major irrigation, fertilizer and agricultural electricity subsidies.

This paper analyzes the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in Mysore, India. The DBT is an initiative of the Indian central government to develop an electronic payment system for centrally funded social protection schemes.